Wednesday, October 28, 2009

Eye Blindness

Risk factors of blindness:-
The most common causes of blindness and glaucoma, cataracts and retinal detachment, which in the retina of the eye, and soft tissue that lines the back of the eye and sends visual messages to the brain, comes loose from its normal position. Although the retinal detachments can be caused by sudden shocks (such as baseball to the eye) or complications resulting from eye surgery such as LASIK, it can start with small rips in the retina, which left untreated, Branch says. Some research suggests people with blue eyes or green may be exposed to risk more, despite the Branch notes the existence of "any dramatic increase" in the prospects for development of tears in the retina of the eye.

British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has recently revealed that doctors found two tears in the retina in his right eye, causing the media to a wave of speculation that he is slowly blind. As a teenager, in a separate incident, the rugby in the retina in the other eye brown, leaving him with only 30 percent of his vision, according to the Daily Mail.
Here are the warning signs for your opinion may be at risk:-

two thirds of the eye is filled with glass, a jelly-like substance, which begins to contract with age. "Spin-off points, topics or networks 'floating' across the field of vision is in fact branches of the shadows caused extensive glass on the surface of retina," says Branch. The sudden onset of floaters, especially the black stains, it may be an indicator of the beginning of the tear in the retina of the eye.

Flashing lights, such as lightning bolts or small strobes, found in the peripheral vision glass is tugging on the retina and may cause it to come loose from its normal position.

Shadow Effect:-
The sense of the shade, or curtain gray, high or low over the field of vision may be a sign of the retina is peeling away from the back of the eye.

Very near the people considering face a higher risk of eye disease, especially in the retina tears, says Branch. "Because their eyes are longer than any person with a« normal »vision, the retina is stretched, which makes it easier to become detached."

To preserve your vision, and maintaining a healthy diet includes a lot of dark, leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale, and collard greens. "They are all rich in vitamins and antioxidants that protect eye health," says Branch. On sunny days, wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from harmful UV rays. More importantly, do not postpone the regular eye exam.

He added: "Whenever you get any of these symptoms evaluated by an ophthalmologist," Branch says: "The sooner you can get it fixed."

Facts on Smoking

Light Smocking Facts :-
Smoking just one cigarette rigid arteries of young adults by 25 percent, says a new study.

And the solidity of the arteries of a person, the greater the risk of heart disease or stroke, and noted researcher Dr. Stella DASKALOPOULOU, internal medicine and vascular medicine specialist at McGill University in Montreal in the health center.

It is measured by hardening of the arteries in smokers and non-smokers, aged between 18 and 30, at rest and after exercise. To establish a baseline measurement, the request of smokers who smoke five to six cigarettes per day, and to refrain from having a cigarette for 12 hours before the first test them in practice. Before the second experiment, exercise, and allowed to smoke one cigarette. Before the final test, they were asked to chew a piece of nicotine gum.

After exercise, and atherosclerosis in non-smokers fell 3.6 percent. But smokers hardening of the arteries increased by 2.2 percent after exercise. In smokers, and hardening of the arteries to increase 12.6 percent after chewing nicotine gum, and 24.5 percent after it had been one cigarette.

There was no difference in the hardening of the arteries among smokers and non-smokers in the rest.

"Our findings are significant because they suggest that smoking only a few cigarettes per day effects on the health of the arteries" DASKALOPOULOU said in a news release from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. "This was disclosed was very clear when these young people were placed under physical stress, such as exercise."

"In fact, this means that smoking even in light of people to otherwise healthy young man can cause damage in the arteries, compromising the ability of their bodies to deal with physical stress, such as climbing a set of stairs, running to catch the bus," she said. "It seems that this compromise to respond to physical stress occurs first, before the damage to the arteries and it becomes clear in the rest."

Aids Information

Short Introduction of AIDS:-
Soon as detected cases in injecting drug users and recipients of blood transfusions. By the year 1982 and the name of the disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, AIDS has killed nearly 25 million people in all parts of the world, orphaned 12 million children in Africa alone.

AIDS is caused by a virus acquired through direct contact with infected body fluids. And causes immunodeficiency virus attacking type of white blood cells that help fight infection. Because this leads to various diseases, and not a single disease, AIDS and referred to the syndrome. A virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Sex without protection from HIV on the main road leading to humans, as it targets white blood cells known as CD4. The virus replicates within, in the end to the explosion of the body and the floods that billions of dollars. The immune system then kicks in, and the virus body and wages war. At the height of the Battle of billions of CD4 cells can be destroyed in one day. As the cell count drops, the immune system begins to fail and opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis action.

Monday, October 26, 2009

You have just been diagnosed with breast cancer, and you need to follow a comprehensive approach.
What you can do to increase your chances of success of treatment?

Here we have eight of mind and body tips of vitality and healing journey in cancer diagnosis:

I think complementary, not alternative. When dealing with cancer, and the use of holistic methods as a complement to medical treatment recommended, and not as basic treatment.

  • 1:Eat well. It may help give you a better chance to recover from cancer. Eat protein if you have lost a lot of weight because of your cancer treatment. Reduce fat intake. Avoid foods that have been linked to cancer, such as bacon, bologna, and hot dogs, pork and smoked meat.

  • 2:Reduction of alcohol. After more than two drinks a day have been linked to increased risk of breast cancer.

  • 3:Addressed antioxidants. This protection from damage caused by the so-called free radicals, which are believed to trigger cancer growth. A lot of vegetables, fruits and nuts contain antioxidants. Beta-carotene and lycopenes may help, but studies are inconsistent.

  • 4:Lose a few pounds extra if you can. There may be a relationship between weight and breast cancer recurrence. The study, which followed more than 900,000 people, reported in an article in 2003 in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed that obesity increases the risk of breast cancer in women in the first place, the risk of dying from one time to have them.

  • 5:Also, he believed that being overweight or obese may be responsible for 20 percent of all cancer deaths among women in the United States and 14 percent among men. That means 90,000 cancer deaths could be prevented each year if Americans could maintain a normal and healthy body weight.

  • 6:Exercise 30 minutes a day. You can start in activities such as Tai Chi, or gentle yoga.

  • 7:Be happy. Studies have shown that patients who suffer from depression have a higher three-year mortality rate of certain types of cancer than those who are not.

  • 8:The final recommendation of our work, and we believe that this quotation : "Be realistic plan for a miracle."

High blood pressure is linked to breast cancer mortality in African-American women:
A study conducted by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, have shown that high blood pressure, or hypertension, is an indicator of mortality among breast cancer patients, especially those who are African Americans, high blood pressure, which represents about 30 percent of survival patients disparity between African-American and white breast cancer.

According to the author of the study, lead, and the UCSF Epidemiology Dejana Braithwaite of the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, who is also an affiliate with the UCSF National Center of Excellence in Women's Health, this study is the first to link between cancer deaths and high blood pressure, and specifically first to show that high blood pressure is an indicator of mortality among African-American breast cancer patients.

"White women are more likely to develop breast cancer, but African-American women are more likely to die from that," said Braithwaite. "We were trying to shed light on the factors that contribute to the disparity in survival between the two groups."

The results are published in the March 2009 printed edition of the International Journal of Cancer, available on the Internet.

The study included 416 African-American and 838 white women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1973 and 1986, and following them through 1999. All women in the study patients in the Kaiser Permanente in Northern California. The patients were all residents of San Francisco Bay Area, and was known at the stage of the disease, and of course for the treatment of cancer.

Kaiser Permanente members are representative of the general population for ethnic groups, demographic, and social and economic systems, with the exception of very high and very low ends of the economic spectrum, according to the study. The researchers used data from patient records, and considered more reliable than self-reported data by patients. Kaiser Permanente in the research department of the long collaborated with the UCSF breast cancer research.

The study found that African-American breast cancer patients with the highest crude mortality rate in general, or death from all causes, than whites during the study period: 39.7 percent versus 33.3 percent respectively over a mean follow-up to nine years.

When age, race, and characteristics of the tumor, and treatment of breast cancer was controlled by high blood pressure, 30 per cent of the racial disparity in mortality rates, showed the results of the study.

"High blood pressure led to poor results for patients of African-American white counterparts," said Braithwaite. "Even if you statistically control for the characteristics of the tumor and breast cancer treatment - chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy, and hormone therapy - the negative impact of high blood pressure in African-American women would increase the risk of death."

High blood pressure is not part of the Charlson comorbidity index, a tool used widely to provide estimates of survival for patients with a range of participants in the circumstances, or so-called comorbidities. If the results of this study is to validate the population in the more contemporary patient, and research suggests that high blood pressure should be included in the index because of its high predictive value of the results, "said Braithwaite.

According to senior study author Dr. Laura Esserman, director Carol Franc Buck Breast Care Center; co-leader, breast cancer program, UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, part of the UCSF National Center of Excellence in women's health, comorbidities have an enormous impact on the average life expectancy, and thus influence the decisions for the treatment of breast cancer. "We started in an attempt to determine what should be assessed comorbidities for all patients routinely, and discovered that high blood pressure in African Americans is associated with high mortality rate from breast cancer," she said.

In addition, this information may provide clues to the cause of the high mortality rate in African-American women with breast cancer, said Esserman.

"The message is that high blood pressure is a big deal, and affects African Americans more than other ethnic groups, and it affects the survival Assembly. Better management of high blood pressure has potential to improve patient outcomes, particularly among African-American cancer patients breast, "Braithwaite concluded.

The authors of the study with Braithwaite and Jeff Esserman is Belkora; Dan Moore, said Dr. Robert Hiatt of UCSF; Jim Martin Tammemagi, Brock University, Ontario, Canada; Elissa Ozanne, Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston; de Western, Northern California Cancer Center, Fremont, California; William Satariano, University of California at Berkeley, and Michael Liebman, Windber Research Institute, Windber, Pennsylvania.

The study was funded by the Windber Research Institute; Kaiser Permanente Community Benefit Program, and surveillance, epidemiology and end results program of the National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Defense, Center of Excellence in the care of breast cancer.

UCSF is a leading university dedicated to promoting health in all parts of the world through advanced biomedical research and education at the postgraduate level in life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care. For more information, visit the

Kaiser Permanente in the Department of Research and undertake, publish and disseminate epidemiological and health services research to improve health and medical care of Kaiser Permanente members and the community as a whole. It seeks to understand the determinants of disease and well-being and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care. Currently, the research division of Kaiser in more than 400 staff working on more than 250 epidemiological and research projects in the field of health services.

Part B drug proposal

Part B drug proposal would limit medical care to reduce their salaries after 2010:

Dim view of that usually marks the Medicare fee schedule proposed for the coming year to a large extent, this time brighter for doctors looking for relief from reductions in wages and imminent.

In a major shift in policy from the previous administration, and health care centers and medical services had proposed deleting the doctor who administered drugs from the calculation of Medicare physician payment formula. Physician payment cut spending across the board when all the services the doctor - a category that includes Part B drugs - more than the annual targets. Remove the costs of drugs would reduce the level of expenditure that would exceed the goals and cuts the trigger.
Functional proposal, announced on July 1, will not diminish over the next year to be 21.5%, and cutting board. However, it would reduce the number of years after 2010 that physicians face cuts under the formula of payment, as it would reduce the size of cuts that still exist.

Over the next five years, is expected to push updates from the doctor between -6.3% and -5.4% will be replaced with the updates of -3.1% and 1.4%, "said Jonathan Blum, director of the Center for the functional management of medical care. This means that pay for medical care doctors an extra $ 45.4 billion during the five years that if the doctor who administered drug remained part of the payment formula.

This step can also make things easier for Congress to reverse the 21.5%, and reduce further reductions in the future, commissioned by the formula, because the cost of five years in Parliament legislation such as this change would decrease the same amount. Unless appointed by the Conference to remove the $ 45.4 billion, however, that spending will be added to the federal deficit.

American Medical Association, which along with other physician organizations pushing for the removal of the doctor who administered the drugs payment formula since 2002, and described the proposed move a historic victory for doctors and patients.

"We are very pleased that the Obama administration in accordance with the Convention on the crossings that do not belong in the payment of doctor drug formula," said President monopoly J. James Rohack, MD. "Instead of another Band-Aid fix, today's action paves the way for the Congress to ensure the payment of rates stable, reflecting an increase of the cost of maintaining medical practice and the elderly access to health care."

MRI of the Breast

Which is considered "high risk" and should have a breast MRI every year?.
American Cancer Society recommends annual breast magnetic resonance imaging to examine any person who has a 20% or higher lifetime risk of breast cancer. I personally recommend that anyone with a ratio of 15% or higher lifetime risk of breast cancer be screened annually with magnetic resonance imaging and mammography. To determine the extent of life-threatening, we must look at the age of the patient, family and personal history. High-risk women include those who have had breast cancer or who have relatives and very close with breast cancer - and his mother, sister or daughter. Breast density is also a factor. Women who have mammographically dense breasts - 50% or more of the glandular tissue is - are at increased risk. Other risk factors are previous biopsy showing some high-risk conditions, or to be carriers of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. At our center, we have found that with the magnetic resonance imaging, and we detect cancer early in many of the women a very high risk who have had mammography X-ray negative. While those at risk need to be careful, it is important to remember that nearly 200,000 women who develop breast cancer each year in the United States, 70% do not have a family history of disease or other risk factors. Every woman age 40 years or more in need to have annual mammogram, regardless of risk factors.

Nobel Prize for medicine shared by scientists all 3 United States to work DNA:-

Three researchers, based in the United States in 2009 won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for work on cell division and aging. And exchange of scientists and the three award $ 1.4 million is: H. Elizabeth Blackburn, Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco; Carol W. Greider, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Maryland, and Jack W. Szostak, Ph.D., Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts.

Trio won the 1980s action show how chromosomes are protected against the degradation of DNA molecules called telomeres by an enzyme called Telomerase. As a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Process is known to contribute to cancer and cellular aging, "said Francis S. Collins , MD, Ph.D., director of the National Institutes of Health, which awarded three grants from $ 32 million over 30 years.


CareTools declare iChart Available on Apple App Store:-
Mobile health care industry recognized in the field of information technology leader, today announced the mother of digital medical record system to connect to the iPod phone will be available tomorrow on the Apple App Store. "We realized early on that iPhone has the ability to make a radical change in the use of information technology in the most important patient / provider interface - the actual point of care," said Dr. Thomas Giannulli, President CareTools.

"We believe iChart originally used on the iPhone is the output of the jump in functionality, ease of use and affordable. Because of the value that provides iChart, and we are confident it will significantly stimulate the adoption of information technology by health care providers."
iChart has been designed to serve as an electronic "personal medical assistant" and focuses on streamlining the daily "chart, bill and fill" routine of health care providers. IChart leverages the advanced capabilities of communication and iPod von warehouse patient data, images, in addition to providing an updated list of medications, drug interactions, pharmacies, billing codes and complaint specific clinical templates.

Synchronization of new information and be completed on the Internet wirelessly using secure technology and iChart allows a single provider or entire healthcare network to automate medical data capture effort to research and patient follow-up information related to the use efficiently designed "touch and take advantage of the" interface.

IChart application can be configured to synchronize data to the user online and included iChart Sync account, where the data can be viewed, shared and printed via a web browser. Group and the organization's accounts and can exchange data preparation teams and influence the data entry by his colleagues iChart in almost real time. Caretools also provides each user the opportunity to link the community or enterprise lab results via a central portal HL7, and the recipes the way to its national networks in their description. IChart application is the price of slightly more than $ 100 and can be downloaded wirelessly from the store using the iPhone or iPhone touch.

Apple's new App Store will provide iPhone users with native applications in a variety of categories including games, business, news, sports, health, reference and travel. App Store on iPhone works over cellular networks and Wi-Fi, which means that it can be accessed from almost anywhere, so you can buy and download applications wirelessly and start using it immediately. Some applications, but is free and the App Store notifies you when updates are available for application. App Store will be available in 62 countries at launch on July 11, 2008 at (link will launch iTunes application).

CareTools is a software company with a single focus - information management at the point of care. With more than 14 years of experience, ranging from a hand held its first full system of electronic medical records, the team is committed to linking Caretools caregivers of patient information through the latest technology in mobile

H1N1 Disease

Tips to prevent influenza H1N1 patients:-
In line with global efforts to curb the spread of swine flu, the state of California Dental Hygiene Association (CDHA) today's list of simple ways patients and staff in the field of oral health can prevent infection and spread of the disease.

"It is very important that the public sees a link between oral health and prevention of bird flu since the H1N1 virus spreads through the respiratory tract and mouth," said President CDHA, Daphne Von Essen. "The main objective is to control the infection to prevent transmission of the disease - which begins in the mouth."

Most people may not realize how important it is to avoid sharing toothbrushes or allowing them to communicate with each other in the bathroom, she said.

"This is particularly true if a family member contracts the flu," said von Essen. "We advise people to get rid of the old toothbrush and get new ones if they are either sick or getting over the flu."

A second reminder is important to note on the necessary hygiene respiratory / cough etiquette. Centers for Disease Control recommends that people cough directly into the tissue, or elbow shirtsleeve instead of covering their mouths and hands. Always wash your hands afterwards and repeatedly throughout the day.

Health and dental assistants, dentists, and recommends the following CDHA infection control measures during the evaluation of the patient:

- Patients who suffer from the disease in acute respiratory infections and should be sent home or placed in a single room with a patient left the door closed.

- Disposable surgical mask supply for people who cough or the provision of tissues and without touching the receptacle for the disposal of tissues used.

- The sick person should wear a surgical mask when outside the room of the patient.

- Dental health care for the patient and evaluation of staff with influenza like illness should wear a surgical mask disposable, non-sterile gloves, gown, eye protection (for example, goggles) to prevent direct exposure to the skin and in the conjunctiva.

- Check the following Web site on a regular basis and recommendations may change as additional information becomes available here.

- Patients, dentists and health care workers must clean your hands (such as washing hands with non-antimicrobial soap and water, alcohol-based hand rub, or antiseptic hand wash) before and after contact with respiratory secretions and contaminated objects and materials.

- Routine cleaning and disinfection strategies used during the influenza seasons can be applied to the environmental management of swine flu. More information can be found here.

"This flu is serious, but with the appropriate steps, education and dental services, health care professionals and their patients can help prevent the spread of H1N1", said von Essen.

California Dental Hygiene Association (CDHA)

Sunday, October 25, 2009

Best Diet to Lose Weight

Weight reduction of the high-protein, low carbohydrate --- article in German:-

Protein high and uniform, have been tested a low-carbohydrate diet in 128 patients in weight over a period of 12 months. Under this system to reduce the weight up to 38% of body weight was observed for the original. Apart from the reduction in weight there was a normalization of blood pressure and blood lipids and sugar in the blood. Diet is easily adapted to the outside of patient care and is exceptionally well tolerated by patients.

Is Cancer Hereditary

The cancer can run in families?.

If it seems cancer is rampant in your family, you can be more susceptible to cancer, inherited. However, it is important to put that risk in perspective. Of the estimated 1,000,000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed annually. So far, only five to 10% and is considered hereditary. Moreover, the presence of a genetic predisposition does not mean you will get cancer. In many cases, you can reduce your risk by making the right decisions about diet and exercise, and tobacco use.

A detailed family medical history can help the doctor determine if you are prone to inherited cancers. The indicators could include the development of cancer from 10 to 20 years earlier from cancer random; one that strikes at the bilateral level, as is the case in both breasts or in two different locations in a single device; two or more than one generation who have the same type of cancer; particular tumor site combinations seen within the family, especially breast cancer, ovarian, colon and uterus.

Not Afraid

Learn how to not be afraid:-

Why do some people have the ability to remain calm and relaxed even in the most cases of stress? New experiments in mice from Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers and provide insight into how changes in the brain when animals learn to feel safe and secure in situations that usually makes them anxious.

HHMI investigator Eric R. Kandel and Daniela D. Polak tests conducted in rats conditioned to feel safe in stressful situations. Experiments have shown that mice that developed conditioned inhibition of fear, which Kandel calls "learned safety."
Behavioral changes observed in the mice frustrated concern in the most effective anti-depressant drugs such as Prozac, said Kandel, who is at Columbia University. "It's a bit like psychotherapy," he noted. "This shows that behavioral intervention works."

This research is reported in the October 9, 2008, in the journal Neuron. Kandel conducted the study with Pollak, who will soon leave the Kandel lab to assume a position in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Vienna.

In the new study is noteworthy because it reveals in detail how elegant behavioral conditioning can affect the brain. According to Kandel, knowing how behavioral intervention works at the molecular and cellular levels may be a way of attention to identifying new ways to treat depression and anxiety disorders.

Kandel, who trained as a psychiatrist, is intrigued by new discoveries. "I've always been interested in how the work of psychoanalysis," he said. "As the experience of learning, and there must be a biological basis in the brain."

Two types of fear, instinctive and learned, and have evolutionary roots, which is necessary to stay alive. But in some people, pathological forms can be learned from the fear that will lead to debilitating anxiety disorders, post-trauma, or depression. I learned safety, on the other hand, reduces chronic stress, one of the hallmarks of depression and other psychopathologies. "The ability to identify, develop and exploit conditions of safety and security is fundamental to survival and mental health," said Kandil, "but little is known of the neurobiology of these processes."

In previous research, Kandel to teach the group of mice to associate myself with a particular tone with protection from an impending averse event. Over time, the mice became conditioned to take advantage of sources of security and safety in their environments. In the new study nervousness, Pollack Kandel sought to know the characteristics of behavioral and molecular learned safety in mice.

In their experiments, mice were trained to associate safety or fear with specific auditory stimuli (t). The air of fear, coupled with the shock stimulus audio light on the mouse in the foot. Air safety, and auditory stimuli was not followed by shock. Experiments have shown that the safety-conditioned mice learned to associate the tone with the absence of danger and displayed less anxiety in the presence of this reference safety.

Transition to a stress test, Kandel team placed the safety-conditioned mice in a pool of water for a swim test. Forced swimming test is usually used by researchers to measure how antidepressant drugs affect the behavior of mice. "In this desperate situation it seems - in mice, where they have no option to escape from the water - they are beginning to show signs of behavioral despair better than drugs for depression. We found that mice trained for safety could be overcome by a sense of hopelessness in the swim test," explained Kandil. The impact of anti-depressants in the safety-conditioned mice was similar and comparable in size to the treatment with the drug fluoxetine (Prozac), Kandel noted.

Pollak and Kandel then looked at how learned safety influenced the development of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, the structure is located in an area of the brain called the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus is worth mentioning because it is one of the few structures in the brain that generate new neurons - even in adult animals.

The researchers found that mice which had been conditioned for safety had a greater number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus. When Kandel's team used radiation to blunt the birth of new cells in the dentate gyrus, they discovered that their interventions both slowed safety learning and stunted the effects of anti-depressants learned safety.

Pollak and Kandel also found that safety learning to accelerate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF in the dentate gyrus. BDNF is a growth factor that promotes growth and differentiation of new neurons and their connections.

Intriguingly, genetic analysis revealed in the amygdala in the brain and fear center, learned safety tunes the expression of key components of the nervous system, dopamine, and the neuropeptide. Both systems are believed to influence learning, mood, and cognition.

Kandel said his group was intrigued to find that learned safety did not affect serotonin, a neurotransmitter typically targeted anti-depressant drugs. I learned safety appears to influence the levels of both dopamine neurons and neuropeptide, which suggests new ways to develop drugs for depression, he said.

"They gave us many insights and led us to a number of potential targets for new drugs," Kandel explained, noting that there are already agents in development that affect the dopamine and neuropeptide pathways

Heart Disease Risk Factor:-
Middle-aged men who smoke, high blood pressure and high cholesterol can be expected to live 10 to 15 years less than men who do not have these risk factors for heart disease. The conclusion is the conclusion of the research based on data collected over 40 years from 19,000 male civil servants as part of the study and Whitehall. The results are published online today in the British Medical Journal.

Lead author, Dr Robert Clarke, Clinical Trial Service Unit, which is funded in part by the Medical Research Council at the University of Oxford, the importance of the results of the study:

«We have shown that men in the age of 50 who smoke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels can be expected to survive to 74 years of age, while those who have any of these risk factors can be expected to live up to 83 «.

The men recruited for the Whitehall study between 1967 and 1970 to consider the implications of smoking, blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the blood, and this was at the height of the heart disease epidemic in the United Kingdom. Participants between 40 and 69 years old when he joined the study.

Participants completed the questionnaire in the previous entry, which covered medical history, smoking habits and degree of employment and marital status. The initial physical examination recorded height, weight, blood pressure, lung function and blood cholesterol and glucose levels. With funding from the British Heart Foundation, the records of 18,863 men and tracked 7,044 participants alive and was considered in 1997, 28 years after initial screening.

Upon entry into the study, 42% of men current smokers, and 39% of high blood pressure and 51% had high cholesterol. In the review, about two-thirds of the cessation of smoking and the differences in the levels of blood pressure and cholesterol had also fallen by two thirds during this period.

Clark concluded: «The results give people another way to look at risk factors for heart disease which can be understood more easily. If you stop smoking or take the necessary measures to address the high blood pressure or body weight, and will translate into increased life expectancy «.

«It also provides support for the existing public health policies. Ban on smoking in public places, and efforts to reduce saturated fat and salt, combined with medications for those at risk of heart disease and blood vessels, when taken together will lead to a significant improvement in the average life expectancy of the population in all parts ».

Original research paper: 'the average life expectancy for cardiovascular risk factors: 38 years of follow-up of 19,000 men in the study and Whitehall' Robert Clark and his colleagues are scheduled to be published on the Internet in Britain

Can Sickle Cell Anemia to be treated with resveratrol extract, according to researchers:-
Red grape extract in the skin may be a new treatment for sickle cell disease, Medical College of Georgia researchers say.

Extract, resveratrol, a chemical commonly found naturally in red wine, fruits and various plants, have been found to stimulate the production of fetal hemoglobin, which reduces the Sickling of red blood cells, and reduce the painful episodes associated with vascular disease.

Most of the production of fetal hemoglobin stop after birth, but in patients where it is still the dominant model, it can lead to fewer complications, says Davies Agyekum, in the second year Ph.D. student at the College of Graduate Studies micrograms.

In sickle cell disease, abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to sickle. Abnormal form in the blood and impedes passage through vessels and can cause pain and other complications due to lack of oxygen in the blood.

Davis working with Dr. Stephen E. Meiler, vice president of research at the Department of Anesthesia and perioperative medicine, and the eight-week animal study to determine whether the combination of anti-inflammatory and fetal hemoglobin-producing properties of resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol, which can reduce the risk of sickle cell disease.

Hydroxyurea, an anti-cancer medicine, food, and only approved drug treatment for sickle cell disease, and increases fetal hemoglobin. According to Davis reseveratrol-based treatment may be easier for patients.

Ghana has recently received the original three-to five-year $ 15,000 grant from the Southern Regional Education Board State Doctoral Scholars Program, a program designed to increase the number of students who are the minority doctoral degrees and become college and university professors.

That he attend the FAO's annual Institute for education and guidance in Arlington, Virginia, today through Oct. 25, to learn the skills of success and prepare for a university-level teaching position.

"My ultimate career goal is to be in a position to inspire a future generation through education and guidance, so I am ecstatic about the opportunity this grant provides," says Davis.

Source: Medical College of Georgia

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells:-
Researchers from Brown University and McGill University discovered that natural killer or natural killer cells, help to prevent T cells from over-respond when it hits the virus. This balance and help to prevent T-cells, which are usually in the immune system from causing damage.
Natural killer or natural killer cells, are part of the innate immune system. And produces a healthy body to respond to them early in the infection. They kill infected cells and activate specific virus.

Found natural killer cells is more important for the body than previously thought. Researchers from Brown University and McGill University, we now know that the cells also help to maintain the T-cells - key players in cell immunity - from over-responding. Such a balance and help T cells to maintain their role in the immune response to adapt, rather than becoming a very revitalization of many of causing harm.

This enables the discovery, published in the September issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, one day be used to help in the treatment of patients who suffer from immune system is weak. Managing the production of natural killer cells could help stabilize the immune system of people who suffer from HIV or prevent patients from the rejection of bone marrow or organ transplantation.

Results establish the importance of understanding how to preserve the surrounding natural killer cells, it can be lost, "said senior author Christine Byron], a professor of medical science at Brown University. Seung-Hwan Lee, Postdoctoral Fellow at the Byron]'s lab, is first author on the paper.

"The action reflects the two important aspects of Nagorno-Karabakh, a cell biologist, and the first piece is understanding how to preserve the natural killer cells, instead of losing them," said Byron], and Esther Elizabeth Brintzenhoff professor in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Immunology. "The second is that if you can keep them around, they have an important function of organizational adaptation to reduce immune response. If you do not have them through the challenges a long time, to adapt to your immune system response that can go unregulated and lead to death."

Scientists know that natural killer cells to the effects of anti-microbial. But new research focus on factors that help to keep the surrounding natural killer cells. Through the study of mice, researchers determined that the ability to keep the surrounding natural killer cells depends on whether they have a special type of activated receptors to encourage the spread of weapons.

Once activated, NK cells expanded help to drive the production of cytokine known as interleukin-10, and the effects of immunoregulation and control of infections. (Cytokines are protein molecules that helps regulate the immune system) On the other hand, IL (10 helps to dampen T-cell response. Overabundance of T-cells in this case can be harmful to the body and lead to death.

Byron] said it was important to know that can help make natural killer cells proliferate, and an important milestone for help in maintaining the body when needed.

Such an understanding is crucial, she said, to help patients who suffer from a weak immune system who may not be able to withstand natural killer cells alone.

Said Byron] research emphasizes the need for balance in the immune system, with the right combination between North Korea and T-cells to supplement innate immunity and adaptive in the body.

"Do you want the right balance," she said. "This can help to create the right balance."

Aids Vaccine

Aids Vaccine:(USA & THai Research):-
First AIDS vaccine shows encouraging results in clinical trials is only modestly effective and did not protect those most at risk of HIV, it emerged today, and the United States and Thai researchers revealed the results fully in Paris.

Announcement last month that the controversial $ 105m (£ 64m) trial conducted in Thailand have succeeded unexpectedly taken by surprise, and the excitement of the archaeologists around the world amid speculation that the steady spread of HIV / AIDS and can be verified before the passage of a long time.

However, it is now clear that this is a long way wide of the mark.

The full results, presented at the AIDS Vaccine Conference in Paris, and published on the Internet immediately by the New England Journal of Medicine reveals that:

• The vaccine does not protect those at high risk of HIV infection, such as sex workers and injecting drug users.

• The greatest protective effect in the first 12 months and then seem to fade.

• When those who did not get all six shots of the vaccine have been taken out of the analysis, the positive result was small from a statistical standpoint.

Some scientists and advocates in Paris, however, praised the results, if not as a triumph, then as a beacon of hope. Dr. Michael Nelson of the U.S. Army - The U.S. military may run research program with the Thai government - said scientists will now have to work intensively to pick up clues to the development of AIDS vaccine in the future outcome of the trial. "It's a warning sign for developing a vaccine," he said. "This was a yes, we can not for the moment: a chance to become enthusiastic. I broke down the door, and we are all going to try to collectively through this incident."

But Seth Berkley, President of the International Initiative for AIDS vaccine, which evaluates and channels funds to the trials, said he thought the test system in Thailand will take anywhere else. The vaccines work - AidsVax, which had already failed in a trial in Thailand on its own, and Alvac - was 15 years old.

"For this reason there was a scientific controversy about the start of this trial," he said. "If they were going to start again, you may use one of vaccines more power we have [in the laboratory] today.

"We do not have a vaccine on the horizon, and not on the Thai one, or one of the others, and for this reason we must be patient for this marathon rather than the enemy."

Thai trial, given the RV144 name, was controversial from the outset because it involves two vaccines were given together, one of which had already failed to protect people from HIV while the other has not been tested alone. Many people felt in the $ 105m that it could be better in terms of cost spent.

More than 16,400 Thai men and women aged between 18 and 30 who do not have HIV were recruited and randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. They were given six shots over six months: two of Alvac followed by two more have been injected with each of the vaccines. Was to test HIV every six months, and advice on how to avoid it over the next three years.

By the end of the trial, only 125 people were infected with HIV. To announce key findings in the past month, it was said that 51 of those given the vaccine, HIV has become positive, compared with 74 in the placebo group, which gives statistically the effectiveness of 31%.

But many of the volunteers did not get all six vaccines, with the figures, down from about 8,000 in each group to about 6,000. Among these people, there were 50 on infection and placebo, and 36 on the vaccine, which gives the effective rate of 26% but not statistically significant, meaning it could happen by chance

Sweet(Glycan) play a Role in Cancer Metastasis:-
Cell surface covered with sugar molecules called glycans, that are related to proteins and fats. Sugars from the glycoproteins and glycolipids can take complex forms. In particular, the glycan makeup of normal cells and cancerous epithelial very different. Several studies have suggested that the changes glycan plays a role in metastasis of cancer, although the mechanisms by which it can do so has proved elusive. In a paper published in the Journal of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, and Dr. Michiko Fukuda, in collaboration with Dr. Minoru Fukuda, has now identified the receptor glycans of cancer of the blood vessels in the lung. These antibodies to cell receptors of skin cancer prevented from entering and growing in the lung. Since the glycan being studied is also expressed on the surface of the colon, breast, lung and ovarian cancer, and these results have broad implications for therapeutic targeting of tumor-related glycan

Detected down syndrome through Blood Test:-

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have developed a new prenatal blood test that accurately detected Down syndrome and two other serious chromosomal defects in a small study of pregnant women 18. If confirmed in large trials, as they say, the testing would provide a safer and faster alternative to prenatal tests such as amniocentesis that pose a risk of invasive small abortion.

Researchers have long known that a pregnant woman's blood contains small amounts of DNA from the fetus. Howard Hughes Medical Institute researcher Stephen Quake and colleagues at Stanford University to devise ingenious means of fetal DNA found in the mother's blood to determine whether the embryo cells contain an extra chromosome is associated with many types of severe birth defects.

Effect of Carbonation

Taste of Carbonation:-

In 1767, and stood chemist Joseph Priestley in his laboratory one day with an idea to help the English sailors stay in good health in long journeys in the oceans. He molded the water with carbon dioxide to create the liquid simulates the finest sparkling mineral water consumed in the European health resorts. Priestley, man-made tonic, which urged philanthropists to test His Majesty the King on board, did not prevent the outbreak of scurvy. However, as over the decades, the carbonated water and became popular in cities and towns to taste and fun later as a key element in sodas, sparkling wines, and all variety of soft drinks.

Absent from this nearly 250-year-old story is the scientific explanation of how people taste carbonate heated in the glass. In this week's issue of Science magazine, researchers at the National Institute of Dental Research and the skull (NIDCR), part of the National Institutes of Health, and colleagues from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of California, San Diego (report they have discovered the answer in mice, and the sense of taste, which resembles a lot of people.

They found that the taste of soft drinks is initiated by the enzyme linked such as small flag from the roof of turbidity sensing cells in the taste buds. An enzyme called carbonic anhydrase 4, reacts with carbon dioxide in the soda, and activate cells of acid taste in the bud and drove her to send a message to the sensory brain, where carbonate is seen as a familiar sensation.
"Of course, this raises the question of why the carbonate is not only a sour taste," says Nicholas Ryba, Ph.D., senior author of the study and scientist NIDCR. "We know that carbon dioxide also stimulates the somatosensory system mouth, and therefore what we consider to carbonate should reflect the combination of these somatosensory information with that of taste." There somatosensory system transmits information within the body of sensory receptor protein to the nerve fibers and then to the brain, where is the controversy. Sensory information, including the common taste, touch, pain, and temperature. Ryba said the taste of soft drinks quite deceptive. "When people drink soft drinks, and they think that they are detected by the explosion of bubbles on the tongue," he said. "But if you drink carbonated drinks in the pressure chamber, which prevents the explosion of bubbles, and found that the sense is in fact the same, what people taste when detecting and furans and the gutter language is a combination of activating and taste and somatosensory receptors of cells, and this is what gives a sense of carbonate and distinct. "

While some chefs may disagree, and food does not tickle the taste buds that line the upper surface of the tongue, palate, and upper esophagus. Instead of salt in salted or sugar in trouble chocolate drop to match the taste receptor cells clustered in our taste buds.

Scientists believe that the sense of taste generates only a limited palate of distinguished qualities, namely: tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and familiar with the savory. A lot of flavor of food (in the "tickle the taste buds") comes from a combination of this information taste with input from other senses such as touch and smell.

Over the past decade, there has been considerable progress in determining the basis for detection of the five major taste qualities. In fact, the laboratory of Charles Zuker, Ph.D., senior author of the study from the University of California, San Diego, and Ryba already working to identify the proteins and cell receptors responsible for sweet, bitter, delicious taste receptor cells and a photo detection. But the sense of taste can detect other flavors?

Most recently, a number of groups have suggested that taste buds has revealed other qualities, such as fat and mineral tastes. She also pointed out that carbon dioxide induces strong reactions in the nerves of taste. The senses of carbon dioxide on many levels - in the somatosensory (including touch and pain), and the smell, and in the brain and blood to monitor breathing. But how are disclosed in the taste was not clear.

This claim Jayaram Chandrashekar, Ph.D., lead author of the study, and the world at the University of California, to explore the taste of soft drinks. Side by side with David Yarmolinsky, Lars von Buchholtz, Ph.D., co-authors of the paper, he discovered that an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase 4 is selectively expressed on the surface of sour taste receptor cells.

Carbonic anhydrase 4, California, or fourth, is one of a family of enzymes that catalyze conversion of carbon dioxide into carbon dioxide, which quickly ionizes the release of protons (acid ions) and hydrogen ion (low base). During this, anhydrases carbonic help to provide cells and tissues with a buffer that helps prevent excessive fluctuations in pH, a measure of acidity.

The scientists found that if canceled California to invalidate the fourth sensor cells or inhibiting the enzyme activity, it is a sharp drop mouse taste of carbon dioxide. California and thus the fourth activity provides the primary signal detected by the taste. California and the fourth reflects on the surface of cells, DNA, Chandrashekar and co-workers to the conclusion that the enzyme ideal for preparing generate acid catalyst for detection of these cells when presented with carbon dioxide.

Why mammals taste of soft drinks? Scientists are not sure whether the carbon dioxide detection itself serves an important role or is merely the result of the presence of CA IV on the surface of cells, DNA, where they may be found to help maintain the pH balance in the taste buds. Ryba also says: "This question is still open, and often is a good one to follow in the future."

Vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer:-
Forms of cancer of the vagina in the vagina, and the region surrounding the external genital organs of a woman. Vulva includes the following sections:

** Lips - lips around the opening of the vagina
** Clitoris - a small block of tissue at the opening of the vagina
** Bartholin's glands - small and mucus-producing glands on either side of the vaginal opening

Signs and symptoms:-
In most cases, cancer of the vagina affects young children. Less often, cancer occurs in the clitoris or in Bartholin's glands. More than 90 percent of cancers of the vulva is a type of skin cancer as they begin in squamous cells, and the most important type of cells in the skin. And usually develop slowly over many years in its initial form are not cancerous.

Vulva cancer is relatively rare, and usually affects Caucasian women over the age of 60 years, despite the fact that the situation can occur in younger women, and those of all races. Other risks to the situation include the following:

  • Smoking
  • Taking steroids or other drugs that weaken the immune system
  • Genital warts caused by HPV, sexually transmitted human virus (human papillomavirus)

In most cases, cancer of the vagina causes symptoms early. Therefore, if you experience any of the symptoms of the condition, you must visit a doctor immediately. Common symptoms of cancer of the vagina may include the following:

  • Vagina itching that lasts for more than one month
  • And the reduction or sore on the vagina that will not heal
  • A lump or mass in the vagina
  • Unjustified vagina pain
  • Bleeding from the vagina which is different from your usual monthly bleeding
  • Burning in the region, which continue even after your doctor may treat a burn
  • Any change in size, color or texture of meat or a mole in the vaginal area


It is important to note that if early detection and treatment, cancer of the vagina has a high cure rate. Therefore, it is essential that you visit the doctor for a specific diagnosis. In reaching a diagnosis, your doctor will first review the medical history, ask about any symptoms experienced by conducting thorough physical exam. The following tests also may be performed:

* Pelvic Exam :-
This test involves a sense of the vagina and the uterus and ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder and rectum to find any defect in form or size.
* Ultrasound :-
This test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of organs and systems within the body. These waves, which can not be heard by humans, creating a pattern of echoes of the so-called ultrasound. Healthy tissues, fluid-filled cysts and tumors look different on this picture.
* The system tomography (CT) scan :-
This is the method of photography in the body of a thin beam of X-ray is about the patient. Detect small measure the amount of x-rays make it through the patient or particular area of interest. Computer analyzes the data to build a cross-sectional images. These images can be stored, displayed on a screen or printed on film. In addition, it can build individual images or "slices" the establishment of three-dimensional models of devices.
* X-ray :-
This provides the X-ray images of organs and structures within the chest, including the heart, lungs and airways leading to them, and great vessels, and the upper part of the thin sheet of muscle below the lungs.
* Magnetic Resonance Imagining (MRI) :-
This is a non-invasive painless using powerful magnets and radio waves to build up a picture of the body. Any imaging plane, or "pieces" than expected, stored in a computer, or printed on film. MRI can easily be performed through clothing and bones.
* Biopsy :-
This test involves removing a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination and / or culture, often to help the doctor make the diagnosis.


When diagnosed and treated early, curable cancer of the vagina in more than 90 percent of the cases. Treatment for cancer of the vagina usually involves surgery, radiation therapy and in some cases, and chemotherapy. We have a team of specialists, cancer, radiation specialists and surgeons work together to design the most effective treatment plan for you.

* Surgery :-
In many cases, cancer of the vagina is treated with surgery. Type of surgery depends on the size, depth and spread of cancer. One commonly used form of so-called surgery and wide local excision, which is cancer and some normal tissue around the cancer is removed. Another approach is called surgical radical excision, which removes the cancer and a larger portion of surrounding tissue, and in some cases, the lymph nodes. After these procedures, you may need to be patient skin from another part of the body added, or grafted, and plastic surgery for an artificial vagina or vulva. In addition, in some cases, you may have used laser surgery, which uses a narrow beam of light to remove cancer cells.
* Radiation therapy :-
Radiation therapy uses x-rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body, called external beam radiation therapy. Another form or radiation therapy, called internal radiation, and works through the development of materials that produce radiation, called radioisotopes through thin plastic tubes in the area where cancer cells are found. May be the use of radiation alone, before or after surgery.
* Chemotherapy :-
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Drugs may be given by mouth, or they may be placed inside the body by injection into a vein or muscle. Chemotherapy is called systemic treatment because the drug enters the bloodstream, and travels through the body, and can kill cancer cells throughout the body.

Vagina Cancer

Vagina Cancer:-
What is vaginal cancer?.

This is an abnormal growth of malignant cells (tumors, tumor) in the vagina. Vagina itself, sometimes referred to as the "birth canal", and for a period of 3 - 4 inch hollow tube that extends from the vulva (external genitalia) up to the cervix (the lower part of the uterus or womb). On the walls of the vagina often in the "closed" position or collapsed, but is able to expand significantly during sexual activity or delivery of the child.

What are the different types of vaginal cancer?.
The vast majority of cases of vaginal cancer (more than 90%) and squamous cell carcinomas, which grow in the skin, "" (epithelial lining) of the vagina. Usually occur in the upper part of the vagina near the cervix, and evolve over the years, many parts of the pre-cancer and called neoplasia vaginal intraepithelial (futility).

There is a much smaller proportion of vaginal cancer (5%) are adenocarcinomas which arise from glandular tissue. A sub-type of this cell Adenokarsinoma is clear, and which occurs in young women whose mothers took the old hormonal drug called diethylstilbestrol (DES), while they were pregnant with them. Diethylstilbestrol, which was scheduled from the 1940s to the early 1970s to prevent miscarriage.

Many of the rarest types of vaginal cancer and malignant tumors (2-3%), seen at the bottom or outside of the vagina, and sarcomas (2-3%). The most common cause of the masses in the vagina are metastases (spread of cancer from another site to the vagina). This can occur either by direct growth of the tumor in the vagina (for example, from the rectum and bladder) or from a remote location (for example, breast) through the blood stream or lymph nodes.
How common is cancer of the vagina?.
Which is a rare cancer, does not represent only about 2% of all tumors of the reproductive system of women. There are about 2,000 new cases reported each year in the United States with nearly 800 deaths attributed to the disease.

Cancer of the vagina that is happening?.
Normally, this is a condition affecting older women, and the average age of 65 - 70 years at diagnosis. The largest number of cases are diagnosed in women more than 70 years of age. Adenocarcinomas of the vagina, especially the choice is clear cell mentioned above, can be seen in younger women, and commonly before the age of 20.

What are the risk factors for cancer of the vagina?.
Squamous cell cancer of the vagina and is associated with aging and some high-risk strains of human papilloma virus (HPV). In fact, after being diagnosed with cervical cancer is in itself a major risk factor for cancer of the vagina. In addition to this, many of the risk factors for cervical cancer has been linked to cancer of the vagina as well. These risk factors include: smoking, young age at first intercourse, and a large number of sexual partners in his life. Chronic irritation of the vagina also been linked to some cases.

As mentioned above, clear cell Adenokarsinoma of the vagina associated with DES exposure in the womb.
What are the symptoms of vaginal cancer?.
Pain, vaginal bleeding, not related to menstrual periods, is the most common symptoms. Bleeding after sexual intercourse may also be a sign of cancer of the vagina. Vaginal bleeding woman in menopause and cancer until proven otherwise, should be evaluated promptly. Other symptoms can include vaginal discharge, and painful sexual intercourse. Vaginal cancer in more advanced, there may also be irritable bowel syndrome, such as blood in the stool, painful bowel movements or constipation, due to the invasion of the tumor in the rectum. Cancer of the vagina and can also spread locally to the bladder causing painful or difficult urination.

How is the diagnosis of cancer of the vagina?.
One of the most important steps in the evaluation of patients with gynecological complaint is a proper examination of the pelvis. Health care provider (HCP) should examine the uterus and ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina. Vaginal cancer is diagnosed and staged clinically, and in the bladder and rectum should also be evaluated (with cystoscopy and proctoscopy, if necessary) for any abnormalities. Tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to scan the upper part of the abdomen and pelvis is not currently standard recommendations, but often done to look for enlarged lymph nodes, kidney / bladder problems, liver and tumor.

A Pap test should be performed, where the outside of the cervix and vagina, and is scraped samples are submitted for microscopic analysis and testing of HPV. Even if the suspected diagnosis of cancer of the vagina, cervix, and the anointing of particular importance to the exclusion of cervical cancer, which is more common than cancer of the vagina. Up to 20% of cases of vaginal cancer found by chance during the examination of cervical cancer, with a touch of the cervix.

A colposcopy is a place where agents include a magnifying lens of the microscope in the vagina to better visualize the cervix and inside the vagina. Any suspicious areas on the cervix and / or along the walls of the vagina should be biopsied and sent for microscopic analysis. Any suspicious areas are tested through the application of a dilute solution of acetic acid in the region, and areas not normally and usually turn white, making it easier to identify and biopsy.Once diagnosed, and how is vaginal cancer staged?

Staging helps doctors decide treatment options that may be best for each individual, as well as to speculate.

Can all of America Joint Committee on Cancer stage (TNM model) and the International Federation for Gynecologie et d 'Obstetrique (generation) can be used.

And preferred by most gynecologists and obstetrics system, which includes 5 stages, from 0 (I) to stage 4 (most advanced).

They are as follows:

  • Phase 0 - very early stages of cancer of the vagina, also known as carcinoma in situ (CIS), neoplasia vaginal intraepithelial (VAIN), or pre-cancer, because cancer cells are trapped in the skin and vagina were not been grown in tissue deep or spread away from the vagina
  • Phase 1 - the cancer has started to grow deep into the tissues of the vagina, but did not spread outside the vagina
  • Phase 2 - cancer has started to spread outside the vagina in the surrounding tissues, but did not reach the walls of the basin
  • Phase 3 - the cancer has spread outside the vagina, which was reached nearby lymph nodes or pelvic side walls
  • Phase 4 - advanced vaginal cancer, with spread to other organs of the body outside the vagina

For further reference, link detailed TNM / Obstetrics stages are shown below:
Primary tumor (T):-

* Texas: Primary tumor can not be evaluated
* T0: No evidence of primary tumor
* Tess / 0: Carcinoma in situ
* T1 / I: tumor confined to the vagina
* T2 / II: Tumor invades paravaginal tissues but not to pelvic wall *
* T3 / III: Tumor extends to pelvic wall
* T4 / exciting: tumor invades the mucous membrane of the bladder or rectum and / or extends beyond true pelvis

Regional lymph nodes (n):-

* NX: Regional nodes can not be evaluated
* N0: No regional lymph node metastases
* N1 / products: the pelvis or groin lymph node metastases

Distant metastases (M):-

* MX: distant metastasis can not be evaluated
* M0: No distant metastasis
* M1 / products: remote metastases

Adapted from the vagina. In: American Joint Committee on Cancer: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, United States: Springer, 2002, p. 251-257.

How is the treatment of cancer of the vagina?.
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the treatment options model, and can be used in treatments, one way or collectively.

The system should be optimal treatment ultimately be individualized as much as possible. Should take into account the stage of the patient's disease, and other medical history, and personal preference, among other things.

Surgery can be done either to remove all or part of the vagina. In general, and minor cuts in the upper vagina are the best candidates for surgery. Surgical methods include the following:

  • Laser surgery for the disease in the very early stage, using a tight pack of light to kill cancer cells
  • Wide local excision to eradicate the cancer and some surrounding tissue
  • Vaginectomy, where the surgeon to remove the vagina and usually some lymph nodes in the pelvis;
  • Radical hysterectomy if the cancer has spread outside the vagina, with the removal of the uterus and ovaries and fallopian tubes, as well as the lymph nodes
  • Exenteration pelvic disease was very advanced, especially if an abnormal connection (fistula) formed between the vagina and the bladder or rectum.

Radiotherapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. This is the treatment of choice for most patients with invasive vaginal cancer, especially stage 2 disease, and higher education. And can be shipped from the external radiation beam (from an external device), brachytherapy (using "seeds" of radioactive isotopes through thin plastic tubes directly into the cancerous area), or more often a combination of both. Sometimes, brachytherapy alone can be used in small cancers in the upper part of the vagina. In general, whether the patients had been renewed after the radiation, and surgery if the treatment is preferred.

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Given the relative rarity of this disease, there are no random data support the use of radiation along with chemotherapy for cancer vagina. However, based on multiple studies in cervical cancer show better results compared with a combination of radiation alone, many recommend to the High Contracting Parties to the use of radiation and concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy for patients with high cancer risk through the vagina. Chemotherapy can also be used to monitor (as opposed to treatment) or recurrent disease on a large scale, but the results have traditionally been poor.

Most of the side effects of surgery and radiation occurs due to the proximity of the bladder and rectum into the vagina. Because of this close proximity, can not be that these are damaged during surgery or radiation. Side effects of radiation can include bowel and bladder irritation with increased frequency of bowel movements or urination. Radiation can cause scar tissue to form in the vagina which can make intercourse painful. And expanded to maintain the permissible from the vagina and are often used to prevent this. Rarely, there can be no connection between the bladder or rectum and vagina form (also known as obstetric fistula), which allows the passage of stool or urine in the vagina.

What is the diagnosis?.
Cell carcinoma and Adenokarsinoma:-

Phase 5-year rate of survival

Phase 0 96%

Phase I 73%

Phase II 58%

Phase III / IV 36%

Saturday, October 24, 2009

Cancer Uterus

Cervical cancer or Uterine Cancer:-
Cervical cancer affects more than 40,000 women in the United States each year, and thousands from around the world have the disease. In fact, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women. Knowledge about cervical cancer and not on a large scale, in many cases, the cancer is not diagnosed until it is in advanced stages. As a result, many women die fromthe disease. In order to ensure rapid and appropriate treatment, it is important that all women be aware of the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer.
What is cancer of the uterus?.
Cancer can affect pretty much any part of the body, from the lungs to the cervix. Cancer is caused when cells in the body begins to malfunction and divide rapidly, causing the growth of excess tissue, called tumors. Cervical cancer is caused by the cancer cells that grow rapidly in parts of the uterus. The cervical cancer about 6% of all female cancers. Of the 40,000 women diagnosed in the United States every year, about 7,000 will die fromthe disease. There are actually two types of cervical cancer: sarcomas and endometrial cancer uterus.

Endometrial cancer:-
Endometrial cancer is the most common type of cervical cancer, which represents about 95% of all cases of cervical cancer. Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the lining of the uterus, which is called the lining of the uterus. Lining of the uterus is part of your body that thickens every month in preparation for pregnancy. If you do not become pregnant, then you will cast your lining of the uterus during menstruation. There are three types of endometrial cancer:

  • Adenocarcinoma: This type of cancer develops on the surface of the lining of the uterus. This is the most common type of cancer of the lining of the uterus, which represents 90% of all cases. And is usually associated with perimenopausal women.
  • Papillary serous carcinoma: This type of cancer accounts for 10% of cases of endometrial cancer.
  • Without a cell Adenocarcinomas: This is the most aggressive type of cancer of the uterus. However, it is usually detected in advanced stages.
Uterine sarcoma:-
Unlike endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma is rooted in the muscles and supporting tissues of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas are very rare, with only about 1,000 women developing thistype of cancer each year. Again, there are three types of uterine sarcomas:

  • Endometrial tissue sarcoma: This type of sarcoma develops in the tissues supporting the lining of the uterus. This is a less common type of uterine sarcoma.
  • Uterine Leiomyosarcomas: Leiomyosarcomas develop muscles in the walls of the uterus. This is the second most common type of uterine sarcoma.
  • Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Carcinosarcomas is the most common form of sarcoma of the uterus. They actually begin to form the lining of the uterus and gradually spread.
Stages of cervical cancer:-
The development of cervical cancer and is measured in stages, with stage 1 being the earliest and stage 4 being the most advanced. If you have cancer of the uterus, it is necessary to be diagnosed as soon as possible. Low rates of survival, and sometimes harshly, with each stage of cervical cancer. Stages are:

Phase 1: Phase 1 marks the emergence of cervical cancer. During this phase, and cancer cells exist only in the womb.

Phase 2: In Phase 2, and cervical cancer has spread from the uterus into the cervix.

Phase 3: During this stage, the cancer cells have spread outside the uterus, but remain in the pelvic cavity. A cancer cell may be located in the basin.

Phase 4: Phase 4 is the most advanced stage of cervical cancer. During this stage, the cancer cells have spread to the bladder and rectum, or other parts of the body outside the pelvic cavity.
Symptoms of cervical cancer:-
In order to arrest the cancer in its early stages, it is important to monitor yourself for signs and symptoms of cervical cancer, especially if you are at high risk of developing the disease. Symptoms of endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma include the following:

  • Irregular vaginal bleeding
  • Painful urination
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Pelvic pain or discomfort
Risk factors:-
Cervical cancer is most common among middle-aged and older women, usually onsets between the ages of 50 and 70. However, it does not listen to younger women for developthe disease. There are other risk factors which also appears to increase the risk of endometrial cancer. These include:

  • Obesity
  • The existence of diabetes
  • The existence of high blood pressure
  • Menstruation or early menopause
  • To engage in long-term use of hormone replacement therapy
  • The existence of inflation, the lining of the uterus (increasing the number of cells in the lining of the uterus)
  • After her previous cancer of the colon and rectum
  • The use of tamoxifen, a drug for breast cancer
  • Prior pelvic radiotherapy

Race also appears to play a factor in cervical cancer. Caucasians are more susceptible to cancer of the lining of the uterus, while African Americans are more likely to develop sarcomas of the uterus.

Once you have been diagnosed with cervical cancer, it is important to get treatment quickly

Thyroid Cancer Treatment

Thyroid cancer:-
There are about 37,000 new cases of thyroid cancer each year in the United States, according to the National Cancer Institute. Females are more susceptible to cancer of the thyroid gland in the proportion of three to one. Thyroid cancer can occur in any age group, although it is most common after the age of 30, and its aggressiveness increases in older patients. The vast majority of patients present with nodules on the thyroid gland, which usually do not cause symptoms. Remember, more than 99% of thyroid nodules are not cancer. But when it starts thyroid cancer does not grow inside the thyroid gland, it does so almost always within a separate nodule in the thyroid gland.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer:-
Occasionally, symptoms such as hoarseness, neck pain, swollen lymph nodes occur in people with cancer of the thyroid gland. Although up to 75% of the population will have thyroid nodules, the vast majority are benign. Young people usually do not have thyroid nodules, but with age, it is likely that the development of nodules. By this time we are 80, 90% of us will be at least one of the nodules.

Less than 1% of all thyroid nodules are malignant. And nodules that are cold on scan (as shown in the picture outlined in red and yellow) are likely to be malignant. However, the majority of these are benign as well.

Types of thyroid cancer:-
There are four types of thyroid cancer, and some are more common than others.

Thyroid cancer, and type of injury:-

* Papillary and / or mixed papillary / follicular ~ 78%
* Follicular and / or cell Hurthle ~ 17%
* Medullary ~ 4%
* Anaplastic ~ 1%
What is the diagnosis?.
Most thyroid cancers are very curable. In fact, the most common types of thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular) is the most healing. In younger patients, both papillary and follicular cancer has more than 97% cure rate if treated appropriately. All types of papillary and follicular cancer is usually treated with complete removal of lobe of the thyroid gland cancer and that ports, as well as to remove all or most of the other side.

The bottom line is that most of thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer, and this is one of the most common types of cancer is curable of all cancers that you get to humans. Treated properly, the cure rate is very high.

Medullary thyroid cancer is significantly less common, but it has complications and dangerous. Bone cancer tend to spread large numbers of lymph nodes in the very early, and therefore require a more aggressive form of thyroid cancer more local, such as papillary and follicular. This requires complete removal of thyroid cancer in addition to dissection to remove lymph nodes from the front and sides of the neck.

The least common type of thyroid cancer is anaplastic which a very poor prognosis. Anaplastic thyroid cancer tends to be found after that and spread an incurable disease in most cases. It is very rare to stay anaplastic thyroid cancer, as in many cases the process can not remove all the tumor. These patients often require tracheostomy during the treatment period, treatment is more aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer - because this type of cancer is more aggressive.
What about chemotherapy?.
Thyroid cancer is unique among the types of cancer. In fact, cells of the thyroid gland is unique among all the cells of the human body. They are the only cells that have the ability to absorb iodine. Iodine is required for cells of the thyroid to produce thyroid hormone, so they are absorbed from the bloodstream, and focus on inside the cell.

Most thyroid cancer cells retain this capacity to absorb and concentrate iodine. This provides a perfect "chemotherapy" strategy. Radioactive iodine is given to the patient with thyroid cancer after the cancer was removed. If there is any normal thyroid cells or thyroid cancer cells remain in the patient's body (and any thyroid cancer cells and retain the ability to absorb iodine), and then these cells will absorb and concentrate on radioactive substances "toxic" iodine. Because all other cells of our bodies can not absorb the iodine-toxic, and they are safe. Thyroid cancer cells, however, will concentrate the poison within themselves and the radioactivity destroys the cell from the inside. Any disease. Any loss of hair. No nausea. No diarrhea. Any pain.

Most, but not all, patients suffering from thyroid cancer need radioactive iodine treatment after surgery. This is important to know. Almost all, however, must be iodine treatment if treatment is expected.

Patients suffering from bone cancer of the thyroid gland usually do not need to treat bone cancer almost never iodine uptake of radioactive iodine. Some small papillary cancers treated with total thyroidectomy may not need treatment, as well as iodine, but for a different reason.

These types of cancer (cancer of the bone and some small papillary cancers) and are often cured with a simple (complete) and surgical treatment alone. This varies from patient to patient, ranging from cancer to cancer. This decision could be made between the surgeon and patient, and endocrine glands in the signal or Internal Medicine. Remember, the radioactive iodine treatment is extremely safe. If you need it, and take it.
An overview of a typical treatment of thyroid cancer:-

1. Thyroid cancer is usually diagnosed stick a needle into a nodule or remove the thyroid gland of a thyroid nodule of concern by the wounds.
2. And nodule remove the thyroid gland is examined under a microscope by a pathologist, who will then decide whether the nodule is benign (95-99% of all nodules should be biopsied) or malignant (less than 1% of all nodules, about 1-5% of the nodules should be biopsied).
3. Forensic doctor decide the type of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, papilofollicuar mixed, medullary, or anaplastic.
4. All of the thyroid gland is surgically removed, and sometimes this is done through the same process where the biopsy takes place. It will be based in the lymph nodes in the neck to see if there is also a need to remove them. In the case of thyroid cancer, anaplastic, your doctor will help you make a decision on the possibility of opening the trachea.
5. About 4-6 weeks after the thyroid has been removed, the patient undergoing treatment with radioactive iodine. This is a very simple and consists of taking a pill in one dose that was calculated for the patient. The patient goes home and avoid contact with other people for two days (so as not to be subject to radioactive materials).
6. After a week or two of radioactive iodine to treat the patient starts taking a pill of thyroid hormone. No one can live without a thyroid hormone, and if the patient does not have a thyroid anymore, and he or she will take one tablet daily for the rest of their lives. This is a very common medicine (examples of the names of the drugs described include Synthroid], Levoxyl, and shield the thyroid gland).
7. Every 6-12 months due to his patient to endocrine blood tests to determine whether a daily dose of thyroid hormone is correct, and to ensure that the thyroid tumor will not return. The frequency of such follow-up tests will vary greatly from one patient to another. Endocrinology and are usually very good at this, and usually have some kind of doctor who follows the patient in the long term.

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